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Phone Calls

Making phone calls in English is really hard. Speaking is hard enough. Taking away expressions and gestures just makes it harder. The speech is a little unclear. Everything together stops many students from even trying to use the phone.

And that’s a pity because the phone makes life easier. Students who are afraid to use the phone can’t call to see if a store has something—they have to go the store. They can’t call to check up on a client—they have to hope things are fine. And perhaps the ultimate tragedy, they can’t order a pizza—they have to go out.

Teachers know this, but what’s a teacher to do? Here are some ideas:

Call Each Other Students practice speaking together all the time, but never on the phone. Send half the class to another room. Have a normal discussion, but have them talking on the phone.

Order Food for a Charity As a class, choose a charity you like. Find out where their office is. Then, call them and tell them your class is going to support them by buying them a pizza. Ask them what kind they’d like. Call a pizza restaurant and order one for the charity. One student will actually make each call. The cost for the pizza and the phone calls shouldn’t be more than $30.

Go Slow Of course you don’t need to jump right to using real telephones. Before making any calls, write practice dialogues to imagine how things will go.

Back-to-Back Ask the students to memorize dialogues (or get close) and do them with their backs to each other and their eyes closed. They’ll have a harder time hearing each other and won’t be able to rely on gestures, etc.

Lights Out! Turn off all the lights and do your discussion that way. This will also help them practice speaking without relying on images.

Analyze the Problems Sometimes just knowing why something is hard can make it easier. Ask the students to write down all the possible problems they might have making a phone call. Then brainstorm solutions to each problem.

What?! One of the big problems on the phone is not understanding. Review ways to ask someone to repeat things.

Plan a Holiday Hotels and airlines often have toll free numbers you can call. Ask your students to put together a holiday package. Give them a budget. Then ask them to call different hotels and airlines to get information on prices and amenities. Just don’t all call the same hotel…

Syllabus Sample

Sample Syllabus

For those who have to make syllabuses, sometimes it can be a bit of a challenge. Thought you might like a sample. Enjoy.

You can take a look at a PDF here.

(Or you can just read it below)

Title:                                     Conversation

Professor:

Office Number:

Office Hours:

Telephone:

Email:

Objectives

The main objective of Conversation is to improve the practical conversation skills of the students.

The following things are needed to have a conversation: Grammar, Vocabulary, Listening Skills, Pronunciation, Fluency, and Prosody. Of these, we will focus on Fluency and Prosody.

Fluency is being able to speak easily, without having to translate from Korean to English in your head.

Prosody is word stress, timing, and intonation.

Grammar, Vocabulary, Listening Skills, and Pronunciation won’t be the focus of the course. However, that does not mean that they aren’t important. Students should work to improve them outside of class.

After the course, students will be able to:

  • Participate in conversations between people who have met recently.
  • Participate in conversations about technology.
  • Participate in conversations about music.
  • Participate in conversations about lifestyle.
  • Participate in conversations about people.
  • Participate in conversations about places.
  • Participate in conversations about the past.

Method

“Method” means “how”. How will students learn? The best way to improve conversation skills is by talking a lot. Students will receive materials to prepare them to have conversations and then will practice having the conversations. At first, the conversations will be very basic. After some practice, we will try speaking more freely.

In addition, students will practice speaking outside of the classroom.

Grades

Homework: 30% Students will receive twelve assignments and must complete at least eight of them. If you do more than eight, you will receive extra credit on the final exam. Students who complete all twelve assignments will receive an automatic 100% (A+) on the final exam and will not have to take the final exam.

Office Meetings: 20% Each student is required to come to my office for a 30 minute meeting twice during the semester. Up to three students can come at a time. You will just practice speaking with me during this time. (If you come and talk, you will receive 100%.)

Participation: 20%

Exams: 20% There will be a midterm and a final exam. They are each worth 10% of the grade.

TOEIC: 10% Your TOEIC score is worth 10% of your grade.

Attendance

If you miss more than 5 classes you will get an F for the course. If you are late at the beginning of class, you will receive half credit for the day.

Textbook

Title Author Publisher Year

 

You can buy this book at the university bookstore.

Supplementary Materials

The professor will give the students many supplementary materials to help students learn the material better.

Schedule

Weeks                 Objectives                                                                                            Textbook Units

1-8 Participate in conversations between people who have met recently.

Participate in conversations about technology.

Participate in conversations about music.

Participate in conversations about lifestyle.

1-3
9-16 Participate in conversations about lifestyle (Continued)

Participate in conversations about people.

Participate in conversations about places.

Participate in conversations about the past.

3-6

 

Units 7 and 8 may be used in class if there is time.

How to Teach Intonation

How to teach Intonation

Click here for some thoughts on what intonation is and why it’s important.

Here are five ways to teach it in the classroom

Play a game The concept of intonation can be hard, but students are quick to know what’s wrong when they’re listening for it. So, create a dialogue and then and read it for the class. Read some lines of the dialogue with the wrong intonation. Have the students note which ones are wrong. The person/team that correctly identifies all the wrong intonation wins.

Dialogue Tree Lots of times, you can use rising or falling intonation, but the meaning changes. (For example: “I bought a car” –vs– “I bought a car?”.) Have the students write a dialogue on some theme. Every third line, they should write two possible replies—one with rising and one with falling intonation—and then continue on writing both dialogues. Make the dialogues short or they’ll run out of paper quickly.

I only go up Give the students a discussion topic, but tell them one partner can only use rising intonation. (So, one partner will need to ask lots of one word questions.) They should discuss the question for two minutes and then switch.

Identify the weakness and make it go away Do your students have trouble with some specific intonation pattern? If so, force them to practice it in creative ways. For starters, they should write dialogues that use the pattern. Then give them discussion questions that use the pattern or discussion questions that might elicit the pattern for the answer.

Just the intonation, please After students write a dialogue ask them to label it in a way that will let them know the intonation patterns. (For examples, they can put and “up” or “down” arrow on each word. Then, they should cross out all the words and read the dialogue without words. They can just make neutral sounds (e.g. grunts) or hum the sentences.

Intonation

Intonation

Click here for some thoughts on how to teach intonation.

What’s intonation? Why is it important?

Intonation is when your voice goes up or down in a sentence. Said another way, intonation is your voice going from high to low or low to high. Your voice can start high and go down (falling intonation). It can start low and go up (rising intonation). It can go up, down, up. It can go down, up, down.

It’s important because intonation affects meaning in different ways. Lets look at some examples.

Falling intonation

I eat apples.

Rising intonation

You like apples?

Rising and then falling

Where did he go?

Note that if you change the intonation pattern, the meaning changes.

Rising intonation changes a statement to a question.

I eat apples?

Falling intonation makes a question sound unimportant to you. (You don’t care about the answer.)

You like apples?

Double rising intonation on a wh- question makes it sound like you misunderstood the first time you heard the answer.

Where did he go?

Here are some more resources for you to check out to learn more about intonation and all the ways it can affect meaning.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intonation_(linguistics)

http://rachelsenglish.com/

http://home.cc.umanitoba.ca/~krussll/138/sec3/inton.htm

While learning all the rules for how intonation can affect meaning can be useful, just listening a lot and unconsciously imitating patterns is even better.

The Night Before Christmas

Here’s a great poem about Santa Claus. Each stanza is explained in simple language.

Students: Just read and enjoy.

Teachers: You might like to print off these worksheets. Give all of the students the whole poem, but give different explanation sheets to different students. Have them talk with each other to get a full understanding of the poem.

By the way, other people have also put together materials for this poem. Check out these links!

http://esl.about.com/od/holidayresources/a/r_twas.htm

http://www.musicalenglishlessons.org/christmas/poem.htm

http://www.eslcafe.com/idea/index.cgi?display:1008456831-13603.txt

http://www.headsupenglish.com/minilessons/nightbeforexmas.pdf

English Gateway

THE NIGHT BEFORE CHRISTMAS
by Clement Clarke Moore

‘Twas the night before Christmas, when all through the house
Not a creature was stirring, not even a mouse;
The stockings were hung by the chimney with care,
In hopes that St. Nicholas soon would be there;

  • Twas means it was.
  • A creature is anything that’s alive.
  • Stockings are like socks.
  • A chimney is the thing above a fire in a house. Smoke goes out through the chimney.
  • St. Nicholas is another name for Santa Claus.

So…it was December 24th and the house was very quiet. No one was moving. Even mice (mouses) were asleep. The stockings (or socks) were put by the chimney because Santa Claus comes and puts presents in stockings. “In hopes that…” means they put their stockings by the chimney because they hoped Santa Claus would come and give them a present.

The children were nestled all snug in their beds,
While visions of sugar-plums danced in their heads;
And mamma in her ‘kerchief, and I in my cap,
Had just settled down for a long winter’s nap,

  • Nestled all snug means very comfortable because their blankets are tight over them.
  • Visions are images (here, it means dreams)
  • Sugar-plums are a kind of candy
  • Mamma means mom
  • A ‘kerchief is a piece of cloth.
  • Cap is a hat.
  • To settle down is to relax, or to become calm
  • Nap means sleep. These days it means short sleep, but in the poem it just means sleep.

So…The children are sleeping and they are very comfortable. They are dreaming about candy. Probably on Christmas, they will get candy. The mom is wearing a piece of cloth on her head, and the dad is wearing a sleeping hat. They just got into bed and were about to fall asleep, but…

When out on the lawn there arose such a clatter,
I sprang from the bed to see what was the matter.
Away to the window I flew like a flash,
Tore open the shutters and threw up the sash.

  • A lawn is the grassy area around a house.
  • Clatter is noises.
  • Sprang means jumped (The verb is To Spring, Spring-Sprang-Sprung)
  • Flew means to go very fast (The verb is To Fly, Fly-Flew-Flown)
  • A flash is a quick light. Lightening flashes, for example.
  • Tore means to break apart, here it means open. (The verb is To Tear, Tear-Tore-Torn)
  • Shutters are doors on a window.
  • Threw means moved something quickly. (The verb is To Throw, Throw-Threw-Thrown)
  • A sash is a piece of cloth that hangs in front of a window, like curtains, but it goes up and down.

So…He wakes up and jumps out of bed because he hears lots of noises outside the house. He quickly goes to the window, opens the window doors, and moves up the cloth, which is covering the windows.

The moon on the breast of the new-fallen snow
Gave the lustre of mid-day to objects below,
When, what to my wondering eyes should appear,
But a miniature sleigh, and eight tiny reindeer,

  • Breast means top (but we don’t use breast like that anymore).
  • Lustre means light.
  • Mid-day means noon.
  • Wondering means to think carefully, with interest; to be curious
  • Miniature means very small.
  • A sleigh is a vehicle for going over snow.
  • Tiny means very small.
  • Reindeer are animals. They have similar bodies to horses, but they’re smaller. They have antlers (like sticks coming out of their heads).

So…When he looks outside, there is a lot of light because the moon is shining on new snow. He says the night is as bright as the middle of the day. He looks with wonder and sees a sleigh. It’s small because it’s far. He also sees reindeer. The reindeer are pulling the sleigh.

With a little old driver, so lively and quick,
I knew in a moment it must be St. Nick.
More rapid than eagles his coursers they came,
And he whistled, and shouted, and called them by name;

  • Lively means energetic.
  • In a moment means very quickly.
  • St. Nick is another name for Santa Claus.
  • Rapid means quick.
  • Eagles are big, fast birds.
  • Coursers are things that pull a sleigh (here it means the reindeer).
  • To whistle is to make a high noise with your lips. For example, people often whistle to make a dog come.
  • To shout is to speak loudly.

So…He sees the driver and knows it is Santa Claus. He knows because he looks energetic. The reindeer are pulling the sleigh and going very quickly. Santa Claus whistles and says the reindeer’s names loudly.

“Now, Dasher! now, Dancer! now, Prancer and Vixen!
On, Comet! on Cupid! on, Donder and Blitzen!
To the top of the porch! to the top of the wall!
Now dash away! dash away! dash away all!”

  • Dasher, Dancer, Prancer, Vixex, Comet, Cupid, Donder, and Blitzen are the reindeer’s names.
  • To dash means to go fast.
  • To dance is to move your body to music.
  • To prance is to walk with high steps.
  • A vixen is a female fox (a fox is like a small, red dog).
  • A comet is a ball of ice that flies through space.
  • Cupid is the Greek god of love.
  • Donder and Blitzen aren’t English words. They are English spellings of Dutch words. Donder means thunder. Blitzen means lightning.
  • A porch is a place for sitting in front of a house.

So…Santa Claus is saying the names of his reindeer and telling them to go quickly to the top of the house.

As dry leaves that before the wild hurricane fly,
When they meet with an obstacle, mount to the sky,
So up to the house-top the coursers they flew,

With the sleigh full of toys, and St. Nicholas too.

  • Leaves are the green things that grow on trees.
  • Wild means not controllable.
  • A hurricane is a strong wind.
  • An obstacle is something that stops something else.
  • Mount means to go up.

So…The reindeer are pulling the sleigh with Santa Claus and lots of toys. When they get to the house, they go straight up the side of the house and onto the roof. Imagine if a wind is blowing a leaf near a house. The wind will push the leaves up the side of the house.

And then, in a twinkling, I heard on the roof
The prancing and pawing of each little hoof.
As I drew in my head, and was turning around,
Down the chimney St. Nicholas came with a bound.

  • A twinkling is a very short time, a moment.
  • The roof is the top of the house. The roof covers the house.
  • Prancing is walking with high steps.
  • Pawing is moving a foot (or a hand, or a hoof, or a paw) along something, rubbing it, scraping it.
  • Drew in means brought back to the original place. (The verb is To Draw, Draw-Drew-Drawn.)
  • A bound is a big jump.

So…he hears Santa Claus and the reindeer on the roof. He brings his head in from the window and Santa Claus comes down the chimney.

He was dressed all in fur, from his head to his foot,
And his clothes were all tarnished with ashes and soot;
A bundle of toys he had flung on his back,
And he looked like a peddler just opening his pack.

  • Fur is warm clothing made from animal skin. Foxes are popular animals for making fur coats.
  • Tarnished means dirty.
  • Ashes and soot are what’s left after a fire. The wood burns and becomes ashes and soot.
  • A bundle is a package with cloth around it.
  • Flung means thrown. (The verb is To Fling, Fling-Flung-Flung)
  • A peddler is someone who goes from place to place trying to sell things.
  • Pack is like package. It’s very similar to backpack.

So…He sees Santa Claus. Santa is wearing fur and he’s dirty because he just came down the chimney. He has toys in a package. He is holding the package with his hand, but it is laying on his back.

His eyes — how they twinkled! his dimples how merry!
His cheeks were like roses, his nose like a cherry!
His droll little mouth was drawn up like a bow,
And the beard of his chin was as white as the snow;

  • To twinkle (for eyes) is when eyes seem very happy. Twinkle also is about light. When light hits a diamond. The diamond twinkles. Stars can twinkle too.
  • Dimples are on a smiling face. They are two spots that are pushed in on the cheeks. Merry means happy.
  • Cheeks are the area on a face to the right and left of the mouth.
  • Roses are a red flower.
  • A cherry is a small red fruit.
  • Droll means funny but a little strange.
  • Drawn up like means made to look like
  • A bow is when a string or a ribbon is tied in a knot with two round parts and two loose parts. For example, girls sometimes wear a bow in their hair. A present sometimes has a bow on top of it.
  • A beard is the long hair on man’s face.
  • A chin is the place on a face below the mouth.

So…Santa Claus looks very happy. He has a happy face (twinkling eyes, merry dimples, rosy cheeks, a cherry nose, a droll mouth) and a white beard on his chin.

The stump of a pipe he held tight in his teeth,
And the smoke it encircled his head like a wreath;
He had a broad face and a little round belly,
That shook, when he laughed like a bowlful of jelly.

  • The stump is the end of something.
  • A pipe is used to smoke tobacco.
  • To encircle is to make a circle.
  • A wreath is a round decoration. You make it by taking branches from a tree and making them into a circle.
  • Broad means wide.
  • Belly means stomach.
  • Shook means moved. (The verb is To Shake, Shake-Shook-Shaken)
  • Bowlful means a bowl that is full (full means no extra space).
  • Jelly is a soft food made from fruit and sugar.

So…Santa Claus is smoking a pipe. The smoke is making a circle around his head. His face is wide and he’s a little fat. When he laughs, his belly shakes.

He was chubby and plump, a right jolly old elf,
And I laughed when I saw him, in spite of myself;
A wink of his eye and a twist of his head,
Soon gave me to know I had nothing to dread;

  • Chubby and plump both mean a little fat.
  • Right means total, definite, for sure
  • Jolly means happy
  • An elf is a human-like creature with long ears.
  • In spite of myself means I didn’t want to, but I did.
  • A wink is when you open and close one eye.
  • A twist is a turn.
  • Gave me to know means let me know.
  • To dread is to fear.

So…Santa Claus is a little fat and funny looking. He laughs at Santa Claus even though he doesn’t want to laugh. Santa Claus winks and turns his head to let him know not to be afraid.

He spoke not a word, but went straight to his work,
And filled all the stockings; then turned with a jerk,
And laying his finger aside of his nose,
And giving a nod, up the chimney he rose;

  • Straight to means directly to, no waiting.
  • A jerk is a quick movement.
  • A nod is when you move your chin up.
  • Rose means went up. (The verb is To Rise, Rise-Rose-Risen).

So…Santa doesn’t talk. He puts presents in the stockings then turns quickly. He puts his finger on his nose, nods, and goes up the chimney.

He sprang to his sleigh, to his team gave a whistle,
And away they all flew like the down of a thistle.
But I heard him exclaim, ere he drove out of sight,
“Happy Christmas to all, and to all a good-night.”

  • Sprang means jumped. (The verb is To Spring, Spring-Sprang-Sprung).
  • His team are his reindeer.
  • A whistle is a high noise made with your lips. For example, people often whistle to make a dog come.
  • Down is the seeds of an old flower. It is white and the wind blows it off the old flower.
  • A thistle is a type of flower, it has sharp points and a purple flower.
  • To exclaim is to say, like in a speech.
  • Ere means before.

So…Santa Claus goes into his sleigh and whistles so the reindeer know to go. They flew away quickly, but before Santa Claus is gone (can’t be seen), the man hears him say “Happy Christmas to all, and to all a good-night.

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